Programming intentionally random programs presents its own special software engineering considerations, in addition to the usual ones. I have been surprisingly slow to realize this, but two years in to working on a probabilistic programming platform I can recommend some specific habits around software engineering of intentionally random programs.

**Reproducibility**. Ironic as this may sound, my first suggestion for how to write programs that are supposed to be random is to make them deterministic. That is, put all the program’s randomness into the initialization of the pseudo-random number generator (PRNG), and don’t draw any more entropy from external sources.^{1} Why? Because then it’s easy to save that initial entropy and reuse it to reproduce the program’s behavior: Regenerate exactly the same plot you saw last time, exactly reproduce the conditions that caused that rare crash your automated test failed with, etc.

Corollary: Manage your PRNG objects so that independent sections of the program consume independent streams of random numbers. This is starkest if the program is parallel, because then each thread absolutely needs its own PRNG state, or else they will both slow down due to contention and become unreproducible again due to reordering; but the advice applies to any notionally separate serial operations as well.

However: Initialize any new PRNG states your program creates internally from deterministic entropy sources, namely a PRNG available at the point of creation. If you are worried about statistical anomalies from PRNG algorithms that were not designed to support parallel streams of random numbers, use a cryptographically strong algorithm—either for the whole program, or at least to create the necessary PRNG seeds.

**Plotting**. Intentionally random programs are supposed to produce probability distributions on outputs, and will tend to have probability distributions on intermediate quantities as well. Your eyeballs are *much* more efficient at extracting information about aggregate behavior of distributions from plots than from printouts of samples (even if the samples are the only thing the downstream consumer of your program can use). Write any needed code for plotting early and use it often.^{2}

**Crash Testing**. The intentionally random programs I have encountered tend to have several adjustable outer loops of the same kinds: a knob for precision (i.e., number of independent samples drawn to push variance down via the law of large numbers), a knob for accuracy (i.e., number of steps in a Markov chain method, or number of trials in an importance-weighted method, determining closeness of approximation to the exact answer), and, for “machine learning” types of tasks, a knob for number of training data points.

The habit here is to make enough of those knobs externally adjustable to be able to do very fast sanity check runs: draw three samples from two steps of inference on five training points projected to two dimensions and get all the way to the end result of the program. The goal is to be able to have a development cycle of (ideally) tenths of seconds for flushing out coding mistakes that don’t depend on the probability distribution of the intermediate computations. Have a version of your automated test suite that does only such crash tests, for rapid feedback on glaring errors (even in sections of the code that would normally take a long time to reach in production-size runs).

Small, fast test cases are a good idea for all software development. In this setting, they are not enough: such tests will not catch mistakes that push the distribution on outputs enough to matter but not enough to be noticeable with only two or three samples taken. For me, it was a lesson of experience that crash tests are worth having anyway.

**Statistical Testing**. The goal of intentionally random programs is to produce outputs that obey desired probability distributions, so testing that they are working requires evaluating and comparing probability distributions. For a distribution represented by a program that purports to draw samples according to it, this task is surprisingly non-trivial. Fortunately, this situation is exactly the domain of classical (frequentist) statistics: runs of the program with distinct initial entropy are identical independent experiments, that can be repeated ad nauseam. Therefore, the null hypothesis that the program does not have any mistakes can be tested with arbitrary discrimination power (for the low price of consuming arbitrary electrical power). Such test cases still require thinking to set up, however: to find appropriate invariants-in-distribution to test, to find appropriate statistical measurements for them,^{3} to test equalities that are only expected to hold approximately, and to choose how to actually trade off computation for discrimination power.

**Golden Output Testing**. My experience of maintaining intentionally random programs has been that one still spends plenty of time working on refactorings that are expected to produce exactly no effect on the random portion of the computation: exactly the same set of pseudo-random numbers is still called for, they are to be combined in exactly the same way, and should produce exactly the same answer.

For this scenario, I recommend making it easy to write test cases that save the pre-refactoring program’s exact output as produced by a short but end-to-end run with a given seed entropy, and compare it bit-for-bit with output produced by the post-refactoring program with the same inputs and seed entropy. This is not difficult to set up, and fills an important niche: It will catch mistakes during such refactorings more effectively than your crash tests, but use much less computation than your statistical test suite.

A word of caution on this kind of “golden file” testing: You should only be comparing differences in thusly saved outputs to find the mistake that caused them. Edits that are expected to change the program’s behavior at the level of which pseudo-random numbers are generated should invalidate the affected golden files completely, and be assessed by your crash tests, statistical tests, and functional tests.

**Continuous Integration**. Intentionally random programs provide an opportunity for a new sense of “continous integration”. In traditional software engineering, that phrase means having an always-on computer somewhere that gets notifications from the version control system and reruns the test suite on every commit (or as frequently as practicable). The purpose is to provide developers with rapid feedback on the status of the build and test suite, without requiring them to use their personal workstations to run it all the time.

When developing intentionally random programs, the opportunity to gain insight from computation is unlimited, even if the program is not changing very rapidly: one can always run one’s statistical tests with more samples (and therefore higher discrimination power), or repeat one’s tests with different initial entropy. I do not, however, yet have tools or best practices to recommend on this point. Besides just implementation effort, the challenge seems to be to find a good balance between invalidating runs performed against old versions of the program and reusing computation across changes that did not affect the component or behavior under test.

## Notes

And also squash all the traditional sources of non-determinism that also apply to programs that aren’t supposed to be random: order-sensitive traversals of hash tables, race conditions in parallel programs, etc.↩

I am not yet satisfied with the available standard plot types. Eyeballing histograms is better than nothing, but I expect that any given project will want probability-probability plots and quantile-quantile plots (what’s the difference?) for comparing similarity of 1-D distributions, as well as domain-specific visualizations of uncertainty in structured objects.↩

My go-to tests now are Pearson chi-square or the G-test for small-domain discrete distributions, Kolmogorov-Smirnov for one-dimensional continuous distributions, and ad-hoc reductions to the above cases for others (binning, projection).↩